Der Bürgerrechtler Martin Luther King Junior kämpfte friedlich gegen die Rassentrennung in den USA. Bis heute ist seine Rede "I have a dream" weltweit. Martin Luther King - "I have a dream " Michael Luther King (* Januar in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein. Martin Luther King Jr. (* Januar in Atlanta, Georgia als Michael King Jr.; † 4. April in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US-amerikanischer.
Martin Luther King - Ein amerikanischer BürgerrechtlerAm August hielt Martin Luther King seine berühmte Rede "I have a dream" - "Ich habe einen Traum " in Washington. Martin Luther King - "I have a dream " Michael Luther King (* Januar in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein. Geboren wurde Martin Luther King jr. als Michael King am Januar in Atlanta, Georgia. Als Michael fünf Jahre alt war, reiste sein Vater, Michael King sr..
Martin Lutherking Early years VideoI Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King .Jr HD (subtitled)
Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B.
After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.
With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in and receiving the degree in In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments.
Two sons and two daughters were born into the family. In , Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation.
He was ready, then, early in December, , to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate.
April 11, Autopsy Report: Martin Luther King, Jr PDF Report. Tennessee Department of Public Health, Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.
A Nation on Fire: America in the Wake of the King Assassination. On This Day — 10 March. British Broadcasting Corporation BBC.
King, Dies in Nashville". New York Times. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Archived from the original on March 27, February 4, The Drum Major Instinct Speech.
Atlanta, Georgia. Jonas E. Salk and to Martin Luther King, Jr". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 4, Office of the Clerk: U.
House of Representatives. Washington Post Online. King County, Washington. May 24, Retrieved February 28, Office of Communications and Marketing.
University of Tennessee at Knoxville. January 18, Lifestyle: Full Coverage: The Martin Luther King, Jr. Winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Time Persons of the Year. Mohammad Mosaddegh Elizabeth II Konrad Adenauer John Foster Dulles Harlow Curtice Hungarian Freedom Fighter Nikita Khrushchev Charles de Gaulle Dwight D.
Eisenhower U. Scientists John F. Kennedy Pope John XXIII Martin Luther King, Jr. Johnson William Westmoreland " The Inheritors " Lyndon B.
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Yolanda Martin Dexter Bernice. Martin Luther King Sr. Alberta Williams King. Christine King Farris sister Alfred Daniel Williams King brother Alveda King niece.
The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker.
Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins , openly violating laws that they considered unjust.
King's intent was to provoke mass arrests and "create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation.
Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.
During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor , used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children.
Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation's attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement.
In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm's way.
But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks.
King's reputation improved immensely. King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest  out of King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.
King, representing the SCLC , was among the leaders of the " Big Six " civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom , which took place on August 28, The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ; Whitney Young , National Urban League ; A.
Philip Randolph , Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters ; John Lewis , SNCC ; and James L. Farmer Jr. Bayard Rustin 's open homosexuality, support of socialism , and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin,  which King agreed to do.
Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation.
However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than , Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and Walter Reuther , president of the United Automobile Workers , to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.
The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks.
The group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.
King delivered a minute speech, later known as "I Have a Dream". I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream.
It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
The original typewritten copy of the speech, including King's handwritten notes on it, was discovered in to be in the hands of George Raveling , the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa.
In , Raveling, then 26 years old, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech, and he got it.
In March , King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling's then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida.
Hayling's group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics.
However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them. Augustine , including a delegation of rabbis and the year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested.
During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of was passed. On February 6, , King delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the New School called "The American Race Crisis.
In these remarks, King referred to a conversation he had recently had with Jawaharlal Nehru in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India's untouchables.
He also discusses the next phase of the civil rights movement and integration. In December , King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC in Selma , Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months.
This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, Acting on James Bevel 's call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, Bevel and other SCLC members, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize a march to the state's capital.
The first attempt to march on March 7, , at which King was not present, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators.
This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement.
It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King and Bevel's nonviolence strategy.
On March 5, King met with officials in the Johnson Administration in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators.
He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.
King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing.
Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order.
The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. In , after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination.
King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale  on Chicago's West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.
The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby , and the combined organizations' efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago Freedom Movement.
King later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South.
Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, , were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs.
Rioting seemed very possible. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result.
When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson , a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization.
A CIA document declassified in downplayed King's role in the "black militant situation" in Chicago, with a source stating that King "sought at least constructive, positive projects.
King was long opposed to American involvement in the Vietnam War ,  but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson's policies might have created.
During an April 4, , appearance at the New York City Riverside Church —exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled " Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence.
A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just.
King opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home.
The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time.
He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.
King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham,  union leaders and powerful publishers.
The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center , with which he was affiliated.
In a letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic King stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K.
Lowenstein , William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas , with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the United States presidential election.
King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.
On April 15, , King participated and spoke at an anti-war march from Manhattan's Central Park to the United Nations. The march was organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel.
At the U. King brought up issues of civil rights and the draft:. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements.
There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood.
I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength.
And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.
Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists,  Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort.
The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.
On January 13, the day after President Johnson's State of the Union Address , King called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars.
We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.
He had written a letter to Martin Luther King Jr. King gave a famous speech at the Riverside Church in New York City, his first to publicly question the U.
In his nomination Dr. King said, "I do not personally know of anyone more worthy of [this prize] than this gentle monk from Vietnam. His ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism , to world brotherhood, to humanity".
In , King and the SCLC organized the " Poor People's Campaign " to address issues of economic justice. King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.
The campaign was preceded by King's final book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? King quoted from Henry George and George's book, Progress and Poverty , particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income.
King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America's cities. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity.
The Poor People's Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.
On March 29, , King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees , who were represented by AFSCME Local The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment.
In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.
On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address  at Mason Temple , the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ.
King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out.
What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead.
But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life.
Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain.
And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.
So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.
King was booked in Room at the Lorraine Motel owned by Walter Bailey in Memphis. Ralph Abernathy , who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite.
Play it real pretty. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder.
After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. National Historical Park. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.
Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave a short, improvised speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence.
The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out.
The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered. President Lyndon B. Johnson tried to quell the riots by making several telephone calls to civil rights leaders, mayors and governors across the United States and told politicians that they should warn the police against the unwarranted use of force.
In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity.
Two months after King's death, James Earl Ray —who was on the loose from a previous prison escape—was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave England on a false Canadian passport.
He was using the alias Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, , though he recanted this confession three days later.
He was sentenced to a year prison term. Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists.
Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon.
Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window.
In , King's son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a new trial. Two years later, King's widow Coretta Scott King and the couple's children won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators.
The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.
Pepper represented the King family in the trial. In , the U. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy.
The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.
In , The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King.
He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way.
King researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march.
And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks.
I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.
King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa.
King influenced Irish politician and activist John Hume. Hume, the former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party , cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement , calling him "one of my great heroes of the century.
In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee  exists to honor King's legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace.
In , Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony.
King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism. Just days after King's assassination, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.
Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.
King's wife Coretta Scott King followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide.
Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people.
King's widow Coretta publicly said that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights. On February 4, , at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:.
I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr.
I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry.
I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison.
And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice.
King also advocated for nonviolent methods of protest, and he organized and staged countless marches and boycotts.
He organized a number of marches and protests and was a key figure in the American civil rights movement. The holiday honoring King is often celebrated as the MLK Day of Service, a reflection of his legacy of addressing social problems through collective action.
His father was the minister of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta—the same church where Martin Luther King, Jr.
In King married Coretta Scott , and the two had four children: Yolanda, Martin Luther III, Dexter Scott, and Bernice. An hour later, King died at St.
His death sparked riots across the country. In the United States he is memorialized on the third Monday of January every year— Martin Luther King, Jr.
King came from a comfortable middle-class family steeped in the tradition of the Southern Black ministry: both his father and maternal grandfather were Baptist preachers.
Young Martin received a solid education and grew up in a loving extended family. This secure upbringing, however, did not prevent King from experiencing the prejudices then common in the South.
Martin Luther King est le fils du pasteur baptiste Martin Luther King Sr. En , il quitte la Convention baptiste nationale, USA pour former la Convention baptiste nationale progressiste avec d'autres pasteurs [ 10 ].
Lee et du militant des droits civiques Lamar Smith. Aujourd'hui c'est moi. Qu'est-ce qu'un homme? Il refuse de payer la caution tant que la ville ne fait pas de concessions.
L'attaque provoque l'indignation nationale et renforce le mouvement des droits civiques. Kennedy de changer le message de la marche.
La tension atteint son comble quand un groupe de manifestants noirs et blancs se jettent dans la piscine du motel Monson, interdite aux Noirs.
Ce jour sera connu sous le nom de Bloody Sunday [ 41 ] et marqua un tournant dans la lutte pour les droits civiques.
Cependant, la campagne n'est pas soutenue par tous les dirigeants du mouvement des droits civiques, y compris Bayard Rustin. Mais l'assassinat de Luther King en avril affecta lourdement la campagne.
Le 3 avril , au Mason Temple Church of God in Christ, Inc. Mais je veux que vous sachiez ce soir, que nous, comme peuple, atteindrons la terre promise.
Et je suis si heureux ce soir. Je n'ai aucune crainte. Je n'ai peur d'aucun homme. Mes yeux ont vu la gloire de la venue du Seigneur!